A native of Villa Carpena, Forlì (Emilia-Romagna), Romano Mussolini studied music as a child, playing classical pieces with his father on the violin.
After World War II, he started playing jazz under an assumed name and by the mid-1950s, he had formed a trio. Romano Mussolini released a self-titled record through RCA Records in 1956. By the 1960s, he had formed the "Romano Mussolini All Stars", which became one of Italy's foremost jazz bands.
The All Stars recorded a well-received record Jazz Allo Studio 7 in 1963 with At the Santa Tecla following a year later. Mussolini's band toured internationally with artists including Dizzy Gillespie, Duke Ellington, Helen Merrill and Chet Baker. In the 1990s, Mussolini recorded two more albums, Perfect Alibi and Soft and Swing. His playing style has been described as "...like a slightly melancholic Oscar Peterson. Occasionally inspired, he was always efficient; he made the refrains run on time."
In 1962, Mussolini married Anna Maria Villani Scicolone, the sister of actress Sophia Loren. They had two daughters, Elisabetta and her elder sister Alessandra Mussolini, who was a member of the European Parliament, and leads an Italian national conservative party, Alternativa Sociale. Romano Mussolini composed the party's official anthem, "The Pride of Being Italian". With his second wife, the actress Carla Maria Puccini, he had a third daughter, Rachele, named after his mother Rachele Mussolini.
Romano Mussolini was very reserved about his family history. It was only in 2004 that he published a book, entitled Il Duce, mio padre (Il Duce, my father), followed by a similar book in 2005, collecting personal memories and accounts of private confidences and discussions with his father.
He was the last surviving child of Benito Mussolini. He died, aged 78, in a hospital in Rome of undisclosed causes.
Two original paintings "CLOWNS", oil on canvas, format about each 60 x 80 cm (framed), by Romano Mussolini. Romano Mussolini war der letzte noch lebende Sohn von Benito Mussolini, dem "Duce". Both paintings (rare) are only with bidding not unter 15.000.- Euro available (15.10.2008) Including (see below) oil print on canvas "RICORDO DEL PADRE" (1980), format 47 x 66 cm handsigned (backside of artwork and certificate) by the artist.